Konsolidasi demokrasi ASIA: sebuah tes model ekonomi politik

Saiful Mujani

Abstract


Asia is the continent which its countries have diverse level of democratic consolidation. This paper intends to test how realistic the political-economic model to explain the democrratic consolidation  in a number of Asian countries. This study rests on the attitude of individual citizens who are observed through nationwide public opinion surveys in each country that became a case in this study, namely Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Mongolia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Malaysia. This study concluded several things. First, majority of public in those seven countries have a preference for democracy compared to other regimes, but there are variations in their democratic consolidation level. Second, the evaluation of the economic conditions affect the evaluation of government performance, which in turn affect the evaluation of the performance of democracy, and at the end affect to the democratic consolidation. Third, the political-economic model could not explain the democratic consolidation of democrac in the Philippines and Mongolia, so it needs further study  for the two cases. Fourth, the effect of political-economic factors on the democratic consolidation in general consistently separated from variations in political culture, especially the background of tradition or civilization of a nation such as religion, as well as socio-economic diversity such as education.


Keywords


Asia; Democratic consolidation; Political-economic model; Public opinion survey

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